The decision largely to renounce negotiation and the tools of traditional diplomacy held an appeal linked to the American heritage of exceptionalism and aloofness from the messiness and compromise of European politics. The gap between those who write in terms of national security and those who emphasize ideology remains wide.
The Clifford-Elsey report expressed the opinion of its authors to be sure, but the two officials drew on documents prepared by all of the major policymaking institutions, and their views were thus informed by the combined wisdom of the Departments of State, War, Navy, and Commerce.
But the Cold War began to break down in the late s during the administration of Soviet leader Mikhail S. In FebruaryKennan telegraphed some eight thousand words from his post at the embassy in Moscow. They could not help but come into conflict.
Truman and his advisers were prudent in reacting to the possibility of Soviet aggression, yet they were foolish to seek so exaggerated a security for the United States. Subsequently, with the announcement of the Marshall Plan in Junethe United States added economic aid to Europe to its arsenal against the Soviet Union.
Trachtenberg argues that the Cold War began as a result of Soviet actions in Iran in Aprilactions that American policymakers perceived as signaling expansive intentions. When Secretary of State James Byrnes returned from a December conference of foreign ministers meeting in Moscow, where he had attempted to conclude agreements on eastern Europe and international control of atomic energy, he faced sharp criticism.
The following month in an article published in Foreign Affairs, George Kennan summarized the new consensus for the educated public. In late February the British government notified the Department of State that the British would be forced for financial reasons to withdraw its support from Greece.
In late the Soviet Union collapsed and 15 newly independent nations were born from its corpse, including a Russia with a democratically elected, anticommunist leader. This sparked the Cuban missile crisisa confrontation that brought the two superpowers to the brink of war before an agreement was reached to withdraw the missiles.
A deep ambivalence toward social change and revolution conflicted with the goal of spreading democracy abroad, particularly in societies long subject to colonial control. The report placed the U. But American policymakers also feared the spread of communism into Greece and believed that from Greece the contagion would almost certainly spread to Italy and France.
This distinction between the worldviews of the Foreign Office in London and the Department of State in Washington highlights the role of ideology in providing the context for policy decision making.
Capitalism and socialism could not long coexist. In reaction to the sharp disjunction between revisionist and traditional scholarship, historians working in the s and s set aside ideology altogether and redefined the Cold War as a traditional conflict of interests between two great powers.
In A Preponderance of Power, ideology has little to do with American policy. Mike Kiev Traditional scholarship on the Cold War assigned a central but sharply circumscribed role to ideology.
By this logic leaders on all sides of the Cold War conflict understood the risks and opportunities they faced in much the same way. For realists ideology is an instrument of policy; it serves to rationalize and justify decisions already made.
A major split had occurred between the Soviet Union and China in and widened over the years, shattering the unity of the communist bloc.
A New York Times article declared that "the epoch of isolation and occasional intervention" was over. In the midst of a civil war, Greece had become a site of a great power contest, lying as it did in a strategic corner of the Mediterranean.
And like Wilson in Mexico, American policymakers throughout the postwar period attempted to curb the radicalism Cold war ideology and policies social change and to intervene on behalf of self-determination. Once the superpowers reached a settlement on Germany, which Trachtenberg argues occurred inthe Cold War was for all intents and purposes over.
Marshall declared that the policy was not aimed at any particular country but instead against "hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. American Cold War policy grew out of these contradictions. The failed diplomacy of fit neatly into the existing preconceptions and predisposition of American diplomacy.
Lloyd Gardner in Pay Any Price emphasizes what he sees as the powerful hold that liberal ideals had over President Johnson. It was a test that Harry Truman met with a commitment to defend freedom throughout the world. It expressed no ambiguity about Soviet intentions: Their handshakes and toasts in beer and vodka celebrated their common victory over Nazi Germany and marked the collapse of old Europe altogether; but their… Origins of the Cold War Following the surrender of Nazi Germany in May near the close of World War IIthe uneasy wartime alliance between the United States and Great Britain on the one hand and the Soviet Union on the other began to unravel.
Less-powerful countries had more room to assert their independence and often showed themselves resistant to superpower coercion or cajoling. This civil war —like paradox has been seen in the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federationas pro-Russian Crimeans have been viewed as illegitimate by pro-Ukrainian Crimeans, and vice versa.
But in the s newly available archival sources from the Soviet side of the conflict reopened the question of the relationship between ideology and the Cold War.Economic systems, or contrasting ideas about ideology, morality, and human nature, are only occasionally included in student written definitions of the Cold War.
In response, I developed this special segment on the Cold War. Cold War Essay. The Cold War began as World War II was ending. American leaders saw the power and ambitions of the Soviet Union as a threat to our national security.
The Cold War was a war of words and ideologies rather than a shooting war, although at times the Cold War turned “hot” as in Korea and Vietnam. During the Cold War, and particularly in the United States, ideological context conditioned foreign policy outcomes.
Ideology defined the issues at stake. For Americans the issue at stake became the survival of freedom, and Soviet communism became the primary threat. Cold War, the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies.
The Cold War was waged on political, economic, and propaganda fronts and had only limited recourse to weapons.
Following World War II, many of the most powerful countries were extremely weakened - Cold War Ideology and Policies introduction. This weakness caused France, Germany, and Great Britain, to lose most of their power both militarily and economically.
View Notes - Cold War Ideology and Policies from HIS at University of Phoenix. Cold War Ideology and Policies 1 Cold War Ideology and Policies Melody Benitez HIS/ October 3, Daniel.Download